NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT <p>The Nigerian Journal of Science and Environment publishes original peer-reviewed research manuscripts in agriculture and pure and applied sciences. The journal is designed to contribute towards the promotion of science particularly in the developing countries of the world. Manuscripts on environmental, physical and biological sciences with particular reference to the African continent are highly welcome.</p> <p>The subjects covered include:</p> <p>Agriculture, Biochemistry, Biology, Botany, Chemistry, Environmental Science, Geology, Mathematics, Computer Science, Microbiology, Medical Sciences, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Physics, Zoology</p> <p> </p> <p>Manuscripts for publication will be accepted on the basis of their high scientific merit and originality. Manuscripts are welcome from all over the world.</p> en-US Thu, 20 Jan 2022 05:38:37 +0000 OJS 60 A web based intelegent decision support system for early diagnosis of different classes of hepatitis <p>The liver is a vital organ in the human body that processes nutrients, filters the blood and fights against infections. In a situation where the liver can no longer performs its functions, may result to various health issues, and by extension lead to hepatitis (A, B, C, D and E) virus. The hepatitis infections are the relative incidence of disease induced death worldwide. Based on this global health challenge, different decision support systems have been developed for prompt diagnosis. However, existing decision support systems do not take into account a centralized system for the early diagnosis of the various classes of hepatitis (A, B, C, D and E). The new system addresses the shortcomings of existing systems via a centralized (web-based) diagnostic decision support system for early detection of the disease. Additionally, the centralized decision support system is enhanced for prompt diagnosis of the disease if a permissible trenched-hood limit is exceeded, then, the individual can seek medical attention and treatment quickly inferred. The centralized system was developed using Hypertext Preprocessing Language (PHP) as front-end with My Structured Querry Language (MYSQL) as the back-end.</p> E. I Ihama , K. O Obahiagbon , E.S Omozuwa Copyright (c) 2022 NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT Thu, 20 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Nitrogen fixation and yield of two cowpea varieties under legume-cereal cropping sequence <p>Field experiment was conducted to determine the biological nitrogen fixation and yields of two cowpea varieties, IT90K-277-2 and Oloyin, under legume-cereal cropping sequence. The experimental design was Randomized Complete Block design (RCBD) with three replicates. Data were collected on growth, and yield parameters which include number of nodules, nodule dry weight, percentage N derived from atmosphere (% Ndfa), grain yield, chlorophyll content, shoot dry weight and total N fixed. Result showed significant varietal differences (P&lt;0.05) in plant height and number of leaves between the two varieties with Oloyin having taller plant height and higher number of leaves. There was no significant difference between the two varieties in the number of nodules, nodule dry weight, percentage N derived from the atmosphere (% Ndfa) and total N fixed (kg/ha). The percent Ndfa for <br />the two varieties was relatively high; IT90K-277-2 had 79% while Oloyin had 77%. The shoot dry weight and grain yield of the two varieties were also not significantly different. Based on the results, IT90K-277-2 and Oloyin had similar potential for biological N fixation and grain yield production and can be used as food security item in Nigeria.</p> O. O. AKINBILE, I. A. ADIAMO, G. O. ELUMALERO, O. J OLALEKAN, A.I. DANIEL Copyright (c) 2022 NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT Thu, 20 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Outcome of acute and chronic effect of tramadol consumption on liver enzymes, renal function, and electrolyte levels in wistar rats <p>Tramadol overdose had been known to cause acute liver failure and its products are excreted by kidney <br>via urine; this makes the kidney a primary target of toxicity, especially in cases of misuse and <br>overdose. This research aims to evaluate the outcome of acute and chronic consumption of tramadol on <br>liver enzymes, renal functions and electrolytes level in Wistar Rats. Sixty (60) adult Wistar rats for this <br>study was grouped into six groups of 5 male, 5 female and was treated with tramadol (30 mg/kg body <br>weight), Group 1 was not treated within the period of the study, Group 2, 3, 4 and 5 were treated for 7, <br>14, 21 and 42 days respectively and was sacrificed. Group 6 was withdrawn for 21 days after 21 days <br>of treatment. The animal’s Liver and kidney were excised for biochemical analysis. Generated data <br>were analyzed using SPSS package and results expressed as mean ± SEM. Results obtained showed a <br>progressive weight gain, elevation in the activities of ALT, ALP and AST, urea and creatinine and <br>electrolytes level in all the groups treated with tramadol, when compared to the normal control. Groups <br>4 and 5 demonstrate the highest value compared to other groups treated. Conclusively, the use of <br>tramadol has toxic effects on the liver function and can also be demonstrated by a substantial increase <br>of urea and creatinine concentration, and in electrolyte levels. Tramadol use must be monitored and <br>restricted to prescription only because therapeutic or severe dose can lead to toxicity.</p> N. R OSSAI, ANTHONY EMEKA OJIEH, C. B. NWOGUEZE Copyright (c) 2022 NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT Thu, 20 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative analysis of the physico-chemical parameters and microbiological quality of well, borehole and sachet water in Kwale, Delta State, Nigeria <p>This study assessed the physicochemical and microbial quality of different types of water available for consumption and utilisation in Kwale, Delta State. Three water samples viz; well water, borehole water and sachet water were collected aseptically into a container and transported to the laboratory for physicochemical and microbiological investigations. Physicochemical analysis was carried out for dissolve oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), pH, total alkalinity, water hardness salinity and conductivity. Microbiological analysis was carried out for the presence of total coliform bacterial. The results of physicochemical parameters analyzed for the different water samples showed that Well water ranged between 0.5–0.9mg/L, 0.50–0.65mg/L, 6.00-6.99, 9.90-10.20ppm, 0.04 0.10mg/L, 0.10-0.70mg/L and 10.0-10.40µS, borehole water raged between 0.3-0.9mg/L, 0.40-0.55mg/L, 8.00-9.00, 11.0-15.0, 0.14-0.18ppm, 0.10-0.30mg/L and 9.10-10.20µS while sachet water ranged between 1.19–1.27mg/L, 0.03-0.40mg/L, 8.74-8.90, 11.0-13.5, 0.10-0.10ppm, 0.10-0.30mg/L and 10.30-10.70µS for D.O., BOD, pH, alkalinity, water hardness, salinity and conductivity respectively. Two species of gram-negative bacteria which include Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aeruogenes were isolated and identified in the water samples. The prevalence of the bacteria in the different water samples showed that E. aeruogenes was most occurring in the water samples. E. aeruogenes was present in well, tap and sachet water samples but was most occurring in sachet water samples and tap water sample. Well water sample showed the presence of E. coli and E. aerogenes respectively</p> P.N OSAJI-NWAFILI Copyright (c) 2022 NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT Thu, 20 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Modified variational iteration method for the solution of the time-fractional Nagumo equation <p>To find the numerical solution of the Time-Fractional Nagumo equation, this paper modifies the He’s Variational Iteration Method (VIM) using the newly developed Mamadu-Njoseh polynomials (MNPs) as basis function and modifier. We first decompose the nonlinear part using the correction functional of the VIM, and hence treat both as a single linear equation. The fractional part is handled via the Riemann-Liouville sense. It was discovered that the modified VIM (MVIM) was able to approximate the Time-fractional Nagumo equation to its exact solution as the results of this study were compared with those found in literature.</p> J. N. Onyeoghane, I. N. Njoseh Copyright (c) 2022 NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT Thu, 20 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Visualising and analysing data on Covid-19 pandemic outbreak in Nigeria <p>The novel corona-virus (COVID-19) that was first reported at the closing stages of 2019 has dwindled almost every aspect of life beyond reasonable doubt. This paper focuses on the incidence of the virus in the 37 states in Nigeria. The first confirmed cases were Lagos State, which was established on the 27th day of February 2020, and was the earliest case to be reported in Nigeria since the start of the outburst in China in January 2020. Using chart method, the authors will analyse the daily and increasing prevalence of COVID-19 in the 37 states. This Paper displayed and analysed the data on covid-19 pandemic outbreak in Nigeria, by using jupyter notebook which is a programming tool for visualizing, analysing and comparing the rate of affected persons in various states in Nigeria. Presently a lot of visualization and analysis has been carried out by various researchers in order to ascertain the actual number of the affected persons. For the cause of this Paper, the authors used two data analytical tools such as R and Python (computer programming) to analyse this data and make prediction using data reports from Nigeria centre for disease and control (NCDC). The result displayed an intriguing report of the virus trajectory in Nigerian state, which also gives the three tiers of government measures in tackling the virus to avoid further spread.</p> F.O. Okorodudu, I.J Onyeacholem Copyright (c) 2022 NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT Thu, 20 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Utilization of readily available resources for the design and development of an efficient, cost effective, license free data repository, capable of very large data volume <p>The factors taken into consideration in the choice of a suitable database product can be overwhelming. Major relational database products provide about the same level of functionality. Although some products offer more features than others, they all provide the basic relational database management system (RDBMS) functions such as create, read, update and delete. Many small and medium size enterprises require only a large data volume capacity in addition to the basic database functionalities. Changing a database system for an establishment especially when the database is already an established one can be destabilizing. In the quest to avoid provider lock-in scenario, reduce the database management costs, have good control over the database, achieve simplicity of architecture, <br />operation and system administration, many enterprise have resorted to open source database products. This paper is aimed at utilizing readily available resources to design and develop an efficient, cost effective, license free and functional data repository, capable of very large data volume. The developed repository was a (homogenous) virtual repository that is an ensemble of independent identical database files organized into a grid. The needed control and manipulation requirements for the data repository were met by separately developed control algorithms. These algorithms make up the virtualized master data management layer. This data management layer feeds and manages the requests to the repository, taking into consideration the peculiar structuring and organization of the repository. This developed repository can provide medium and small establishments a low cost yet functional alternative to the costly larger RDBMS</p> Onwuegbuna C. I. , H. C. Inyiama Copyright (c) 2022 NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT Thu, 20 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Bacteria contamination of Nigerian currency notes from traders in Delta State University Campuses, Abraka <p>The public health significance of bacterial contamination of Nigerian currency notes from traders in <br>Delta State University Campuses, Abraka was studied and a total number of fifty (50) naira notes <br>consisting of ten (10) pieces of each lower denomination (₦20 - ₦500) were collected from traders <br>within the University campuses at Site I and II where commercial activities are high. Relevant <br>bacteriological and biochemical techniques were carried out to isolate, characterize and identify the <br>bacterial isolates. Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method was employed for the analysis of antibiotic <br>susceptibility profile for both Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial isolates. Studies on isolation <br>of bacteria in this investigation indicated the presence of Klebsiella sp., Bacillus sp., Streptococcus sp., <br>Pseudomonas sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Proteus sp. It was observed that S.<br>aureus (31%) had the highest prevalence rate, followed by E. coli (21%) while Proteus sp. (5%) and <br>Streptococcus sp. (5%) both had the lowest prevalence rate. Results for the Gram positive antibiotic <br>susceptibility test showed that isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin (100%), followed by gentamycin <br>(67%) and zinnacef (67%) while septrin (0%) appeared to be the least susceptible antibiotic. The <br>percentage antibiotic susceptibility profile for the Gram negative bacterial isolates also showed that the <br>isolates were sensitive to septrin (100%) followed by ciprofloxacin (75%) while the least susceptible<br>Gram negative antibiotics includes: Augmentin (25%), gentamycin (25%) and amoxicillin (25%). The <br>study showed that naira notes in circulation by traders in Delta State University Campuses are <br>contaminated with potentially pathogenic bacteria species and this contamination may play a <br>significant role in the transmission of infectious diseases. However, findings from the study and <br>information on the result of the antibiotic susceptibility profile will help educate the university <br>community as well as the public in extension, on the precautionary measures to adopt for safety, also <br>the best drug of choice to consider for the treatment of bacterial infections arising from improper <br>handling of naira notes.</p> E Morka Copyright (c) 2022 NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT Thu, 20 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Enhancement of the nutritional value of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) for use as animal feeds and for xylanase production <p>Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) is one of the most important tropical forage crops<br />currently under study. The present study evaluates the enhancement of nutritional value of elephant <br />grass for use as animal feeds and xylanase production. Biochemical analysis were carried out on <br />untreated elephant grass, autoclaved elephant grass, solid state fermented elephant grass and solid state <br />fermented autoclaved elephant grass. The results showed that the solid state fermented elephant grass <br />produced the highest increase in soluble proteins (13.6±0.8 and 20.4±0.9 mg g-1), glucose levels (32.4±1.6 and 54.6±3.3 mg g-1), and reducing sugar concentrations (89.2±1.7 and 114.4±7.9 mg g-1) compared to the other groups of the study. Furthermore, the results obtained for total phenol content and total flavonoid were significantly higher in solid state fermented elephant grass and autoclaved solid state fermented elephant. Similarly, the free radical scavenging capacity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl were potentially active in solid state fermented elephant grass. For xylanase production, solid state fermented elephant grass showed the highest enzymatic activity. These results indicated that solid state fermentation enhanced the nutritional value of elephant grass, which can also be used as <br />substrate for the production of xylanase.</p> O. Egbune Egoamaka, E. Eze, Rachel A. Edwards, T. Ezedom, Nyerhovwo J. Tonukari Copyright (c) 2022 NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT Thu, 20 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0000 An expert system for early diagnosis of stroke <p>The rate at which stroke is killing humans globally on a daily basis is becoming worrisome. Stroke is a <br>medical emergency that needs prompt attention because it stops the supply of blood to the brain. Early <br>detection of the disease depends on the approach/method utilized in diagnosing this disease. As such, a <br>suitable method that can accurately detect it becomes a compelling alternative to overcome the <br>challenges peculiar to the disease. An expert system for early diagnosis of stroke is proposed to <br>ameliorate the challenges because it is an intelligent system that can aid physicians in managing the <br>uncertainties associated with stroke and aid early diagnosis. This paper presents an expert system for <br>early diagnosis of stroke that uses the human-like reasoning style, a Fuzzy Logic system to diagnose <br>and suggest possible treatments for stroke through interactivity with user, with aim of developing an <br>expert system and exploring the potential of fuzzy logic to assist clinicians in Nigeria to accurately <br>predict and differentiate between the different types of stroke. It employs programs like MySQL, PHP, <br>JAVA and XML. The system provides adequate and appropriate results and also makes reliable <br>predictions to users.</p> T Agenmonmen, E. I Ihama , K. O Obahiagbon, O Eguasa Copyright (c) 2022 NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT Thu, 20 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Inclusion of a locally produced animal performance supplement in broilers’ ration <p>Sustainable livestock production which is highly dependent on the availability of quality feed has been the focus of research recently. The present study aims to evaluate the partial replacement of maize and other ingredients with a locally produced Animal Performance Supplement in broilers’ rations. Fifteen broiler chicks divided into three groups of 5 chicks each (n=5) and subjected to formulated livestock feeding for four weeks were used for the study. At the end of the study period, venous blood was collected and assayed for the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). The inclusion of animal performance supplement reduced the amount of maize required and eliminated the use of lysine, methionine, vitamins/minerals premix, bone meal, limestone, and dicalcium phosphate. Results obtained showed that the animal performance <br />supplement enabled the chicks to convert the complex hemicelluloses in wheat offal and palm kernel cake into digestible sugars. This is further confirmed by the increase in weight gain of birds at the end of the study. In addition, no significant change (p&gt;0.05) was recorded in the activities of AST, ALT and ALP of broiler chicks fed with the animal performance supplement when compared with standard control. Thus, the hepatocellular functions of broiler chicks fed with the formulated diets were not compromised. In conclusion, this study showed that animal performance supplement inclusion in feed resulted in birds with better performance wheat offal and palm kernel cake.</p> E. O. Egbune, T. Ezedom, N. J. Tonukari Copyright (c) 2022 NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT Thu, 20 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Influences of salinity on plant productivity <p>An attempt has been made to review the influences of salinity on plant productivity. The study established that salinity affects almost every aspect of plant life including germination, vegetative growth and development, reproduction, and primary production, hence impacts negatively on food security by decreasing water availability, increasing the concentration of ions and diminishing soil microbes, water permeability as well as soil aeration. Although, some plants, mainly the mangroves have some salt regulatory mechanisms in their systems, there is the need to control and effectively manage salinity using appropriate techniques which includes increased drainage, planting of salt tolerant crops and restoring balance via chemical amendments to enable us reclaim the already degraded lands, identify potential salinity issues by monitoring and proffering environmental education to all and sundry.</p> O. M Agbogidi, W. O Egboduku, C. E Enujeke, F. O Stephen, S. C Odume Copyright (c) 2022 NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT Thu, 20 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Socio-economic determinants of cucumber production amidst covid-19 pandemic in Ikwerre local government area of rivers state Nigeria <p>The study was conceptualized to examine Covid-19 impact on the Socioeconomic determinants of Cucumber farmers in Ikwerre Local government area of Rivers State Nigeria. The specific objectives were to describe the socioeconomic characteristics of cucumber producers and identify the challenges faced by cucumber producers due to covid-19 pandemic. A multistage sampling technique was employed in the selection of location and respondents. The data were collected from 120 smallholder cucumber farmers. The primary instrument used for data collected was structured questionnaire. Data obtained was analyzed by descriptive statistics and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results indicated that the average age of respondents was 40 years. Slightly more than half (55.83%) of respondents were females. Also majority (77.50%) of the cucumber farmers were married, while 97.50% of <br />respondents were literate. The results further showed that (55.83%) of respondents were medium sized operators owing average farm sizes of 0.8 ha. Sixty-six percent (65.83%) had a household size of 6- 9 persons with an average of 7 persons. Majority (80.83%) had less than 10 years of experience (average experience of 9 years). The challenges faced by organic cucumber producers through covid-19 pandemic were, insufficient fund, lack of access to market, post- harvest loss, cost of transportation, drop of price of yield, storage facilities, and high cost of input.</p> K Okonkwo-Emegha , C. A Isibor , C. E Ahaneku Copyright (c) 2022 NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT Thu, 20 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Inhibiting effects of Ito-type Brownian noise on the blowup of solutions of nonlinear pantograph differential equation <p>This article studies the influence of multiplicative noise on the blow-up behavior of solutions of a nonlinear deterministic pantograph differential equation. The deterministic equation is perturbed by an Ito-type white noise and the unbounded growth rate is examined along Osgood condition. It is established that if the noise scaling parameter in the state dependent diffusion term is sufficiently strong, the presence of noise ensures that the blow up of solutions of the resulting nonlinear stochastic Pantograph delay differential equation is inhibited or prevented from occurring. However, the underlying deterministic differential equation, where noise is absent, will still admit solutions which blow up to infinity at finite time.</p> A. M. Jonathan, A. O. Atonuje Copyright (c) 2022 NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT Thu, 20 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Antimicrobial activity and preliminary phytochemical screening of oil extracted from food waste generated from Persea americana <p>Persea americana (Mill) commonly known as avocado is a fruit consumed globally with great potentials for the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetics industries. However, the seeds and peels of this plant are commonly discarded as waste. This study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial activity and preliminary phytochemical screening of the oil from the seeds and peels of avocado against selected bacterial and fungal isolates previously characterized in the laboratory. The oil was extracted using soxhlet apparatus with n-hexane as extraction solvent. Efficacy was assessed using agar well diffusion method at various concentrations on Mueller Hinton agar. The result revealed that the extract from the seeds and peels were effective on Penicillium notatum (42.40 mm), Pseudomonas <br />aeruginosa (35.30 mm), Escherichia coli (27.25 mm), Enterococcus faecium (23.21 mm), Enterococcus faecalis (21.20 mm) and Aspergillus niger (20 mm) respectively. The peel extract had no inhibitory effect against Aspergillus niger even at the highest concentration tested. Phytochemical screening of the peels showed the presence of tannins (2.43%), Saponins (7.75%), flavonoids (22.05%), alkaloids (1.21%) and cyanogenic glycosides (15.26%).The high level of flavonoids favors its antioxidant properties. The seeds contains saponins (4.14), flavonoid (4.22), alkaloid (2.25),<br />glycoside (19.08), steroid (12.87), reducing sugar (4.20) and phenolic compound (8.12). DPPH radical scavenging value was found to be 10.753 ± 4.301 µg/ml for peels and 26.344 ± 3.495 µg/ml for seeds against standard ascorbic acid 95.11±89.784. Hence, eluting and purification of the active ingredients in the extracts can make them promising alternative to orthodox drugs; value added products for the cosmetics and food industries as well as reduction in environmental pollution.</p> F. A BAMIDELE, F. O OGUNDIPE, S. O. OSAIDE, G.J CHUCKU, E. M. OLONODE Copyright (c) 2022 NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT Thu, 20 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Exogenous and cell-free nucleic acids in water bodies: A penchant for emergence of pandemic and other particulate nucleic acid associated hazards of public health concern in water nexus <p>Globally, the origin of major exogenous and extra-chromosomal nucleic acids has remained vague, yet there are unremitting reports of emerging nucleic acid particles which are associated with disease cases and other health concerns. The presence of exogenous and extra-chromosomal nucleic acids was determined as potential predilection for emergence of pandemic in water nexus using metagenomics and molecular biology based techniques. Water samples (50) were collected from various water bodies in Oghara environs, filtered (0.45 µm Nitrocellulose filter paper) and treated to confirm the absence of viable microorganisms. Non-bacterial associated nucleic acids were extracted from decontaminated water specimen, Amplified using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), detected using agarose Electrophoresis, while nucleic acid extracts were transferred and expressed in the recipient Escherichia coli K-12 strain. The PCR detection result revealed various exogenous resistant genes including Bla TEM (8/50; 16%), SHV (10/50; 20%), CTXM (12/50; 24%), AmpC (16/50; 32%), NDM-1 (11/50;22%), VIM (6/50; 12%), flor (33/50; 66%), str (8/50; 16%), aadA (5/50; 10%), tetA (24/50; 48%), intI (39/50; 78%), sulI (9/50; 18%), sul2 (38/50; 76%), tmp (21/50; 42%), CTXM-9 (18/50; 36%) and CatII (16/50; 32%). The result also shows the presence of resistant extra-chromosomal genes phenotype (13/50; 26%) with resistant determinants in the various sampled water. The detection of such antibiotic resistant genes amongst cell free and/or exogenous nucleic acids is an indication that present in the water environment are potential nucleic acid based agents of public health relevance. Such nucleic acid particles are also potential emerging agents of particulate disease situation. A redirected and focusbased interest on removal of such particulate cell free and/or exogenous and extra-chromosomal nucleic acids possesses potential for control of future emerging disease cases.</p> B. E. Igere, A. D. Ehwarieme , E. C Okolie , G. Oyama Copyright (c) 2022 NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT Thu, 20 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Cymbopogon citratus reaction on aluminium nitrate induced stomach damage in adult female Wistar rat. <p>Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf (Poaceae family) is grown around the world and has a century-long <br>record of extensive therapeutic applications in traditional medicine in a number of countries. It is used <br>in herbal medicine as antibacterial, antifungal and anti-carcinogenic agent due to its antioxidant <br>properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of C. citratus leaf on <br>the stomach of Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus). A total of twenty female Wistar rats of average weight <br>of 200g were randomly selected into five groups (A to E) with four rats in each group. Group A served <br>as control group fed with rat feed and water ad libitum. Group B received 200mg/kg of aqueous extract <br>of C. citratus for two weeks. Group C received 400mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract of C.<br>citratus for two weeks. Group D received 100mg/kg body weight of aluminium nitrate orally while <br>Group E received both 100mg/kg body weight of aluminium nitrate and 200mg/kg body weight of <br>aqueous extract of C. citratus concurrently for two weeks. The animals were sacrificed using cervical <br>dislocation. The animals were weighed on weekly basis and the results were analyzed using One Way <br>Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Histological findings revealed that administration of aluminium <br>nitrate resulted in changes in cyto-architecture of the stomach. However, co-administration of <br>aluminium nitrate and aqueous extract of C. citratus improved the stomach cytoarchitecture. The <br>changes observed in the body weight were not significant at p value&lt;0.05. This study showed that the <br>aqueous extract of C. citratus has ameliorative effect on aluminium nitrate induced stomach damage</p> O.J. OLALEKAN , O. A. OLALEKAN, F.A ADEBANJO, A. K. ONASANYA, G. O. ELUMALERO, M. O. APENAH, O. O. AKINBILE Copyright (c) 2022 NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT Thu, 20 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative analysis of the association of some physical variables between commercially Available and homeproduced oral rehydration solution sample <p>Diarrheal is a child killer disease which is capable of causing a great loss of volume of fluid and electrolytes when it occurs. It is therefore necessary to secure a mechanism of replacing the lost fluid from a diarrheal impaired person, whenever it occurs. This study is therefore sought to measure the values of some variables of commercially available and home-produced oral rehydration solution samples, investigated within the temperature range of 0 to 60°C. The physicochemical variables investigated in this study include viscosity, pH, electrical conductivity, electric potential and total dissolved solid (TDS). The viscosity measurements were carried out by means of U-TUBE ASTM D445 viscometer within the temperature range in this study. The pH and electrical potential values were obtained using pH/Electric Potential (mV) meter SUNTEX SP-701 and electrical conductivity meter, HACH CO-150 was used to measure the electrical conductivity of the samples of oral rehydration solutions from which, the values of the total dissolved solid were calculated. The results obtained reveal that there were significant differences in the measured viscosity and electrical conductivity of the samples at the temperature range of investigation in this study, with the viscosity ranging from<br>0.52±0.01 to 1.48±0.01 and 0.76±0.01 to 1.52±0.01 mPas for HPORS and CPORS, respectively and electrical conductivity ranging from 5.28 to 13.26 and 2.03 to 9.01 mS/cm for HPORS and CPORS, respectively. The total dissolved solid was observed to be greatly dependent on the electrical conductivity of the samples and the effect of temperature on pH of the samples was quite spelt out. The activation energy values for the samples were estimated from the viscosity measurements as 7.51 kJ mol-1<br>for the commercially available oral rehydration solution and 7.48 kJ mol-1 for the home-produced oral rehydration solution using the activation energy equation of Arrhenius. The high electrical conductivity of the home-produced rehydration solution could be indicative of low quality due to the quality of the salt and water used to prepare the ORS sample.</p> G. K Agbajor, A. F. Akpolile, E. Aganbi, S. O. Ovwasa Copyright (c) 2022 NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT Thu, 20 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Covid-19 pandemic: following the science <p>Almost as soon as the novel virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) <br>was discovered, scientists worldwide started probing its biology, while others developed diagnostic <br>tests or vaccines to control it. However, studies are still on-going on the biology, management and <br>prevention of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). This paper examined the role of Science in this <br>regard. By following the science we now know that the structure and genomic sequence of SARSCoV-2 is the key to understanding its mode of transmission and infection. It is also critical in <br>developing novel plans for the management or prevention of the disease. Thus in this regard current <br>evidence indicates the virus requires binding of SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) glycoprotein to angiotensinconverting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor for entry into host cell. Thus the COVID-19 pandemic has <br>elicited scientific groups worldwide to evolve unusual technologies for the identification of COVID-19 <br>infection or to readjust existing identification systems conforming to the characteristics of the new <br>SARS-CoV-2 virus. The innovative methods for detection of the virus such as RT-PCR-based <br>molecular tests, rapid antigen or antibody tests and immunoenzymatic serological tests were described <br>in the paper. The paper shed light on Science of the therapeutics used for management of COVID-19 <br>based on the following: inhibition of virus entry, inhibition of virus replication, immunomodulatory <br>agents and immunoglobulin therapy. The paper showed that by exploiting different technologies, <br>scientists were able develop anti-COVID-19 candidate vaccines which target the entire SARS-CoV-2 <br>molecules or pieces of molecules exhibited on surface of the virus. During their replication in host cells <br>SARS-CoV-2 can alter their genome sequence and this process is referred to as mutations. The paper <br>discussed the current upsurge in several mutations and variants of SARS-CoV-2</p> S. O. Asagba Copyright (c) 2022 NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT Thu, 20 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Lotka-Volterra Predator-Prey Model with Disturbance <p>The forces which drive growth, development, survival and change within an ecological system involving a predator and prey specie are not easily addressed in the field. To better understand the dynamics in the system, ecologists have turned to mathematical models. The predator-prey dynamics of rat and cat population in a given ecology is studied. The mathematical model proposed by Alfred J. Lotka and Vito Volterra called the Lotka-Volterra model for studying predator-prey dynamics is utilized. Assumptions were made to suit the given ecology. These assumptions lead to the modification of the Lotka-Volterra equations. The equilibrium and stability properties of the modified model is established. Results were simulated using MATLAB.</p> A. J Ogethakpo, S. A Ojobor Copyright (c) 2022 NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENT Thu, 20 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0000